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Definition of Insulin
Human insulin protein (110 aa, 12 kDa) is encoded by the human insulin (INS) gene. This cytosolic protein, a heterodimer of disulfide-linked alpha and beta chains, is produced in pancreatic islet beta cells. Binding of insulin to its receptor stimulates glucose uptake, accelerates both glycolysis and the pentose phosphate cycle and increases glycogen synthesis in the liver. Insulin regulates protein and lipid metabolism. It also decreases blood glucose concentration by shuttling molecules into cells to be used for energy. Decreased expression of insulin protein causes familial hyperproinsulinemia.

Insulin is from the group

Peptide Hormone

Other Names for Insulin



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